I stumbled across a page from AM 738 4to with an expanded Norwegian Rune Poem with verses for additions to the standard sixteen “base” runes. I had some trouble translating it, but I’ve posted a normalized version of the text and my tentative attempt at a translation on the “late additions to the runes” page. For convenience, I’ll reproduce the part I just added after the break.
Sorry for the long time with no updates – I actually picked kind of a bad time to start this website and I’ve been busy with things so I forced myself to make an update this morning.
I posted a page describing Icelandic genitives, along with instructions for the two most commonly encountered problems for English-speakers: using the word ásatrúar, and making a Norse-y patronymic/matronymic-style name. I include instructions on using Beygingarlýsing íslensks nútímamáls to look up different forms of words including genitives, with lots of pictures and a few tricks for when you don’t quite know what to search for.
The post can be found here: https://ordstirr.wordpress.com/language/the-genitive-case/
I also rearranged the links at the top of the page so that they make some kind of sense, now that there’s a little bit of actual content on the site.
It always disappoints me that there aren’t more people into the actual viking runes. I think it’s because the vowel system is confusing. I try to explain it in a way that makes sense. I mostly ignore the ą́ss rune ᚮ but I do discuss nasalization a little bit.
Instead of starting to work on new pages like I should, I’ve continued reading about /ʀ/, partially to make sure what I’ve said so far is right, and partially because it really is a pretty complicated subject with a lot of nuance.
Anyway, I found two things which I thought were interesting, the first being that I can read Norwegian (never tried before! But it’s like Danish – which I can kind of read – except that it makes sense), and the second being that there are loanwords from North Germanic languages into Saami that may be helpful in determining the identify of /ʀ/.
So that you don’t have to go digging through the page to see what I added, here it is:
I’ve just read, in Frå urnordisk til norrønt språk by Odd Einar Haugen, that Harald Bjorvand, a Norwegian historical linguist, pointed out that the Proto-Norse word *diuʀą (“animal”; cognate to deer; ON dýr) was adopted into the Saami languages as divra. I’m afraid I don’t know much about Saami languages. Looking through an article, On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory by Ante Aikio, which notes a variety of North Germanic loanwords into older Saami languages at various points in time, it seems most instances of Germanic /ʀ/ became Saami /s/ (Proto-Norse *haitaʀ ‘hot’> Northwest Saami *hājttēs > Northern Saami háittis ‘very hot (of a stove)’).
However I did find two other interesting examples mentioned…
- Proto-Norse(?) *hrauʀōʀ ‘groin’ (plural) > Pre-Saami *rawša ‘udder’
- Proto-Norse(?) *nāƀiʀōʀ ‘birch bark’ > Pre-Saami *napra ‘birch bark’
The š, I would have to believe, represents /ʃ/, which is the English ‘sh’ sound. That’s what it usually represents anyway.
The reason I question-marked the ‘Proto-Norse’ is that the dating of the first seems uncertain, and because Aikio protests that the second was actually *nāƀirōʀ, with a “regular” /r/ instead of a /ʀ/, on the grounds that Saami wouldn’t have taken it as an /r/. But if Harald is right about divra, I wonder if that may be evidence that /ʀ/was analyzed by Saami speakers in different ways depending on whether or not it came at the end of a word.
Harald Bjorvand considers the sound of /ʀ/ to be the raised alveolar non-sonorant trill [r̞], which is the ř-sound in the Czech name Dvořák, like the composer.